Esmail Kiram II


Self-proclaimed sultan of Sulu The self-proclaimed Sultan of Sulu, Esmail Kiram II encouraged a last-ditch, violent effort to regain part of the Malaysian island of Borneo for the Philippines. Though he claimed the title of sultan of Sulu, several other descendants of the original sultan, who lived in the 15th century, make the same claim. Before Spanish colonisers arrived in the 16th century, the sultanate of Sulu ruled over vast stretches of territory, including parts of what is now the southern Philippines and Borneo. He supported several hundred fighters to invade the Malaysian state of Sabah on Borneo in 2013 to reclaim the area for the sultanate and for the Philippines. The attack left more than 60 people dead set off the most serious security crisis in Malaysia in more than a decade and strained the country's relationship with the Philippines. The Kirams say Sabah was leased to Malaysia. Malaysian officials contend that, in exchange for lease payments to the Kirams, the sultanate ceded the territory to their country. He was born in Maimbung, the Philippines.

Compiler: M. Nauman Khan

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