Birth:6th century

The first great Muslim dynasty was named after him. The Quraish tribe was divided in two clans: Banu Hashim and Banu Ummaya of Makkah. Banu Ummaya had resisted Islam till 627. In the first civil war (fitnah 656-661) the struggle for the caliphate following the murder of Hazrat Usman, Abu Sufian's son Muawiyaj, who belonged to the Banu Ummaya tribe, emerged victorious over Hazrat Ali who belonged to the Banu Hashim, and established himself as the first Umayyad caliph. Civil war and deaths of Yazid (Muawiyah's son) in 683 brought Sufyanid (Muawiyah's father was Abu Sufyan who was the grandson of Ummayah) rule to an end and Marwan I was proclaimed caliph in 684 (Marwanid was another branch of the Ummayad). The last Ummayad Marwan II (744-75) was defeated in the battle of the great Zab River (750) by Abu as Saffah, the founder of the Abbasid dynasty.

Compiler: M. Nauman Khan / Ghulam Mohiuddin

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