The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) expects that the average global surface temperature could rise 1-4.5°F (0.6-2.5°C) in the next fifty years, and 2.2-10°F (1.4-5.8°C) in the next century, with significant regional variation.
Global warming leads naturally to a sea level rise
as the ice caps melt slowly under the action of increased temperatures.
The phenomenon is also increased by the ozone hole above the Antarctic
which allows the ultra-violet radiations to come directly on the southern
pole. Normally, these radiations should be stopped by the atmosphere but
the increased proportion of greenhouse gases created this hole. However,
the rise of the average sea level is especially provoked by the expansion of
the surface waters than by the melting of the ice caps and the Alpine
Forecasts are really difficult to make as the oceans are still not completely understood by the scientists (a so huge mass of water has still unpredicted reactions and evolutions) but the current estimations forecast predict a rise between 21 and 74 cm by 2100. A lot of low-landed countries are thus concerned by the problem. Unfortunately, all those countries are not equal in front of this problem. For example, the Netherlands will have the economic means to protect their land by coastal defence constructions whereas Bangladesh, which is already often affected by severe floods, will not be able to react properly and will probably see major areas of its territory submerged by the sea. We can here speak about a real geographic problem as the natural disaster is amplified by the powerlessness of the country.
Dengue fever is a prolonged, severe flu-like illness, which in certain forms can be fatal. Unlike yellow fever (caused by a related virus and spread by the same mosquito) there is no vaccine for dengue fever. The mosquitoes that carry dengue fever (Aedes aegypti) are also limited by temperature. Frost kills adult mosquitoes and larvae and is therefore an important limiting factor for spread. Consistent with predictions associated with warming in mountain regions, dengue fever is now being reported at higher elevations at 1240 meters in Central America and 1700 meters in Mexico. The mosquito vector has been reported at 2200 meters in the Colombian Andes. Dengue fever may also be moving south, as its presence in northern Argentina and Australia suggest. Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) now occur regularly in Asia and throughout Latin America. DF and DHF are among the more alarming of the resurging diseases, according to public health organizations, because of their epidemic nature and the lack of a vaccine.
Climate plays a role in maintaining the balance
among predators and their prey and the ratios of these “functional groups”
of species as natural biological controls over pests and pathogens (infectious
For example, owls, coyotes and snakes help regulate populations of rodents involved in the transmission of Lyme disease, hantaviruses, arenaviruses (hemorrhagic fevers), leptospirosis and human plague. Likewise, freshwater fish, reptiles, birds and bats limit the abundance of mosquitos, some of which carry malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and encephalitis.
Reduction and fragmentation of habitat worldwide is reducing predator populations. Excessive reliance on pesticides can kill “friendly” insects and predators. Global warming and increased climate variability can also disrupt biological systems that have evolved over millennia, and which act to control the populations of opportunistic, “nuisance organisms.”
|Introduction||Impact on Muslim countries|