Family is the basic unit of human civilization. It is the first
institution where husband and wife learn how to live peacefully
through mutual understandsing and mutual concern for each other.
It is the first institution where child learn how to share and
care for each other, how to respect elders and how to show affection
to the young. Family is the institution which also disciplines
the sexual urge of a man and a woman and teaches them how to satisfy
their sexual instinct in a responsible manner. Family is also
the only legitimate institution for procreation without which
either the human race would be extinct or human beings would be
reproduced in an illegitimate way.
But at the present time, family is under fatal attack by a few
modern and post~modern feminists. Hence in this paper an attempt
is made to present the Islamic stance on sexuality, reproduction
and family life. It is argued that Islam perceives sexuality,
marriage, reproduction and family life as indispensable to the
Islamic way of life which is anchored on the Islamic principles
of Tawhid (monotheism).
Life an Integrated Whole
Islam, which implies willing and complete submission to Allah,
is the complete way of life. It embraces all aspects of life-sexual,
reproductive, marital and familial.' It underlines two important
points: firstly, that Islam perceives life as an integrated whole
and for this reason sexuality and reproduction are parts of the
Islamic system of life, not outside it; secondly, Islam which
is a Divinely ordained system of life, possesses Divine injunctions
and regulations in its texts-the Qur'iin and the Prophetic traditions,
for the regulation of sexuality, reproduction and all that are
related to these.
Islamic philosophy of Tawhid integrates all aspects of life.2
Tawhid implies unity of God, unity of the prophets, unity of life,
unity of mankind, unity of the purpose of creation, unity of knowledge,
etc. The fundamental beliefs that there is no God except Allah
and that the Prophet Muhammad is the last messenger of Allah for
the whole mankind; that life in this and we have to follow Allah's
ordained way of life (Islam) be successful here and in hereafter
(akhirah) and that in Allah vests judgements of rewards and punishments
in the akhirah are all the principles of Tawhid. Hence, questions
on 'sexuality' and 'reproduction' are also anchored on the Tawhidic
Vicegerency-purpose of Life
The very raison d'@tre of the creation of man, according to
the Qur'an is the performance of the vicegerency of Allah. The
Behold, thy Lord said to the angels: I will create a vicegerent
Hence, any thought and activity of man in Islam, be that sexual
or reproductive, should be ultimately related to this purpose of
life-vicegerency of Allah.
Sexuality and Reproduction
With this brief background, it is easier now to look into the
Islamic texts on sexuality and reproduction. Sexuality in Islam
is not trivialised as man's animalistic functions to be tackled
by his own whims and fancies. Sexuality is perceived as one of
the essential aspects of man's life, to be regulated and disciplined
through proper guidance. A man and a woman in Islam can enter
into sexual relationships only after marriage which is considered
as a 'sign' of Allah and the 'ways of the prophets'. The Qur'an
And among His Signs Is this, that He created Yourselves, that
ye may Dwell in tranquility with them.' 4
We indeed sent messengers before you (0 Muhammad) and we assigned
them wives and children.5
It implies that in Islam, the very basis of marital relationships
between husband and wife through which they can engage in sexual
activities is Furthermore, this 'love' is already implanted in
husband and wife each other by Allah so that they may live in
peace and harmony. Islamic attitude towards sexuality goes entirely
against the mere ravings in man/woman and its satisfaction through
legitimate or ways. In Islarn it is 'love' and strong covenant
(nikah)-and not 'force' or temporary arrangements outside marriage
or cohabitation-that unite a man and a woman.' For this reason
all types of pre-martial and extra- marital relationships, fornication,
and abnormal sexual activities are strongly 1 condemned in Islam.
The Qur'5,n says:
Nor come nigh to adultery For it is a shameful (deed)
compe And an evil, opening the road and p (to other evils).'
toward stated Islam thus makes a distinction between sexuality
that is constrained and man disciplined through marital relationships,
and sexuality which transgresses the bounds of moral and spiritual
values. Islam does not overlook the sexual drive in man but institutionalises
it through marriage to protect man from immorality.
The Prophet Muhanunad (p.b.u.h.) said:
0 young men! Those among you who can support a wife should
marry, for it restrains eyes from casting (evil glances) and preserves
one from hmorality.'
mind Islam is quite sensitive in all issues pertaining to marriage
and sexuality. worshi As sexuality outside marriage is illegitimate,
marriage without the proper said: consent of marriage partners
is also invalid. The Prophet Muhanunad (p.b.u.h.) said:
A widow shall not be married until she be consulted, nor
shall a virgin be married until her consent be asked and that
a woman ripe in years shall have her consent asked in marriage
and if she refuses, she shall not be married by force.'
Therefore, marriage in Islam is neither an imprisonment for
woman that is forced upon her as a punishment, nor enslavement
that makes her subservient to man. Marriage is a covenant of faith,
and consent, and a bond of love and concern. Marital relationships,
where sex plays a most important role, are to be guided by moral
and spiritual values. Husband and wife complement each other since
husband provides protection and economic support to his wife and
his wife guards her chastity and her husband's possessions as
her moral obligations. The Qur'dn says:
Men are the protectors And maintainers of women, Because
God has given The one more (strength) Than the other, and because
They support them to be From their means. certai Therefore the
righteous women Are devoutly obedient, and guard In (the husband's)
absence What God would have them guard."
Thus, husband and wife in Islarn complement each other and do
not compete against each other for domination and supremacy. They
are friends and partners in their role as vicegerents of Allah.
Both have rights and duties towards each other and both have obligations
to Allah. This is very clearly stated in the Qur'5nic verse which
proclaims equality in the very creation of man and woman, pointing
out their creation from a single soul:
0 mankind, be conscious of your duty to your Lord, Who
created you from a single soul, created of like nature, his mate,
and from the two created and spread many men and women; and be
mindful of your duty to God in Whose name you appeal to one another
and to (the ties of) womb. Verily God watches over you."
Even if sexual satisfaction is gained by man and woman while
being mindful of its etiquette as ordained in the Qur'an and Sunnah,
it is regarded as worship ('ibadah) and charity (@adaqah). The
Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) said:
Did Allah not make for you that from which you can give @adaqah?
Verily for every time you say Subhan alliih, there is a @adaqah
and for every time you say Allahu Akbar there is a jadaqah and for
every time you say La ilaha illa'llah there is a jadaqah and for
every 6= you say Alhamdulillah, there is a @adaqah and in every
act of enjoining what is right there is @adaqah and in every act
of forbidding evil there is a sadaqah and in your sexual relations
there is a sadaqah.
Thereupon the companions asked: 0 Messenger of Allah! is there
a reward for one of us when he satisfies his sexual desire? The
Prophet replied: Don't you see, if he had satisfied it with the
forbidden would there not have been a sin upon him?
The companions said "yes".
The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said: In the same way when he satisfies
it with that which is lawful, there is for him in @at a reward."
Thus, sexuality is never perceived in Islam as a mere carnal
desire of man to be fulfilled in any way as he pleases. Instead
men are ordained to follow certain etiquette in their sexual relationships
so that they should remember Allah even before this act and do
not fall prey to the Satanic trap. This can be easily gleaned
through a careful reading of a few Prophetic traditions, on these
It is stated that the husband should place his hand on the forelock
of his wife at the time of consummating the marriage and pray
for Allah's blessings. The Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) said:
When any of you marries a woman he should hold her forelock,
mention Allah the most high, and pray for His blessings, saying
0 Allah, 1 ask You for the good in her and the good with which
You have created her, and I seek refuge in You from the evil in
her and the evil with which You have created her.
Furthermore, according to some other traditions, it is desirable
that the husband presents to his wife something to drink to show
kindness to her and to offer prayer together to remain close ever
after for the good and seek refuge in Allah from the evil." It
is also evidenced from several traditions that it is commendable
to make 'wudii' (ablution) after sex before sleep but it is obligatory
to take bath after sex in order to attain ritual purity."
It is quite obvious from the above discussion that sexuality
in Islam is neither perceived as an objective of life to be totally
immersed in, with no other moral and spiritual considerations
nor a beastly act to be fulfilled through any means for its own
Islam disciplines sexual desire of man and also expects him
to remember Allah even while joining his wife for sex and to pray
to Allah to protect the child from evil, if they are granted a
child after the sex, as is clear from the following prayer and
In the name of Allah, 0 Allah, keep us away from the devil,
and keep the devil away from that which You may grant us (offspring).
The Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) said:
After that, if Allah decrees that they will have a child,
the devil will never be able to harm that child.
It also implies that Islam not only enjoins man to remember
Allah before his sexual relationship but also makes him conscious
of his responsibility towards his prospective child to protect
him from the Satan.
Family- Parents' Obligations Towards Children
Sexuality, reproduction and responsibility towards children
are interconnected in Islain through the institution of family.
Family is considered as the first place where children are not
only nurtured but also taught basic morals and etiquette so they
can appreciate Islamic ethos and values. A stabler family wifi
give rise to a stable society and a stable civilization. All this
requires that both parents and children should be mindful of their
obligations towards each other along with their rights, so that
they may love and respect each other. Islam enjoins its adherents
to love children and to be mindful of their responsibilities towards
them from their very inception and even earlier to it. The Qur'an
... and be mindful of your duty to God in whose name you
appeal to one another and to the ties of the womb."
Thus, Islam emphasizes that parents should realise that the
proper development of the child should begin from the mother's
womb itself. Hence the parents should be concerned about their
prospective child from the very beginning.
It is already proven scientifically that a pregnant woman should
abstain from alcoholic liquors and narcotics and should also avoid
tensions. If she fails to observe all these precautionary measures,
complications may result in her own health and also in the health
of her child in the womb. It is also pointed out that the relationship
between the prospective mother and the prospective father should
not be conflict-ridden because it adversely affects the mental
and physical health of the prospective mother and eventually the
Islam commands its believers not only to take care of the physical
upbringing of their children but also their educational, moral
and spiritual development. The Qur'5,n says:
0 you who believe, strive to protect yourselves and your
wives and children from the fire. 19
Obviously, the best way of protecting children from the fire
is through providing proper education and training. More than
the wealth and material property, children badly require from
their parents best education for their real success here and in
the hereafter. The Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) said:
Of all that a father can give to his children, the best is
good education and training.'
In the contemporary age, where Muslim Ummah is facing multitudes
of intellectual challenges, the above Prophetic tradition needs
greater focus. Unless children are brought up with proper education
and skills, they become easily susceptible to alien cultures and
lifestyles. The strong foundation of Islamic culture and civilization
depends on sound education and training of the children. It is
necessary for them to be well acquainted with the dominant ideologies
as well as Islain as the comprehensive system of fife so that
they are able to become role models in the future to take care
of the Ummatic responsibility vis-a-vis mankind. The Qur'iin teaches
its adherents to pray to Allah for their children in these words:
My Lord make me keep prayer and (also) let my offspring (do
so). Our Lord accept my appeal! Our Lord forgive me and my parents.21
Our Lord! grant us in our spouses and our offspring the comfort
of our eyes and make us a model for the needful."
It also implies that Islam completely rejects the perception
of women and children as either a burden or an oppressed class.
In fact, Islam requires men to look at their wives and children
as comforters of their eyes and a source of joy, peace and solace-not
as a suppressed and oppressed class to be dominated and overpowered.
Man's domination of women and children goes against the very spirit
of Islam which asserts that 'command is only for Allah"21 not
When a child is born, Islamic clarion call that 'there is no
God but Allah' is conveyed into his/her ears, which implies that
he/she should submit to none save Allah." Besides this, it is
also evident from one of the traditions that whenever a child
in the household of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) started speaking a
little, the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) used to teach h@er the second verse
of Sarah al-Furqan which gives the'message of Allah's sovereignty
and the Unity of 25 The translation of this verse is as follows:
God (Tawhid). He to Whom belongs The dominion of the heavens
And the earth; no son Has He begotten, nor Has He A partner in
His dominion It is He Who created All things, and ordered them
21 In due proportions.
Thus Islam emphasizes that children should be ingrained with
the Tawhidic message and that they should willingly submit to
none but Allah. It does not however mean that they are not expected
to obey their parents, rather Islam enjoins children to be good
to their parents which will be discussed later. Islam also encourages
that both parents should express their utmost love to their children,
give them time, play with them and cheer thern up through interacting
with them in many ways. It is reported that liadrat Amir who held
a high position in the government during the reign of Cal iph
'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) once visited the house of
the Caliph and was surprised to see that some children had mounted
the chest of the Caliph and were engaged in playing. Seeing the
astonishment of Amir the Caliph enquired about his treatment of
his children? Upon his reply the Caliph said: "Amir (may Allah
be pleased with you), you are a follower of the Holy Prophet (peace
and blessings be upon him) and yet are ignorant of the important
injunction that a Muslim should behave towards his family members
with extreme love and deep tenderness. ,27
Islam is against the despotic and tyrannical attitude of the
husband towards the wife. Islam expects from man a gentlemanly
behaviour and not a harsh attitude towards his family. The Prophet
The best of you is he who is the best to his family, and
I am the best to my family.
The relationship between man and woman in Islam is not therefore
the relationship of master and servant but that of "garments"
to each other and also of protecting friends of one another. The
They are garments for you and you are garments for them."
Thus the very bases of fan-tily in Islain are faith, love, concern
and care for each other so that it turns out to be a civilizing
ground for children. Husband and wife who live in love and peace
with each other can concentrate on their children's well-being
and can bring them up with moral excellence, best education and
spiritual orientation. Such children would not only contribute
their potentials towards the construction of society in future,
but will also remain as a blessing for their parents even after
the death of their parents. Parents of such children will continue
to enjoy the rewards of the education and training which they
imparted to their children. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said:
The actions of a man cease with his death. But there are
three deeds whose reward and blessing continue to reach him even
after death: One that he should make a sadaqah jariah (recurring
charity); secondly, he should leave behind a legacy of knowledge
from which people may continue to derive benefit; thirdly, pious
offspring who continuously invoke mercy of Allah upon him."
Children are blessings which Allah bestows upon parents. But
if the children are not educated and trained properly, they become
nuisance to the parents and the society. Whereas, if children
are properly educated and trained, they shall become bearers of
Islaniic mission, transmitters of Islamic culture in the society
and also bring best rewards to their deceased parents.
Islam forbids abortion and infanticide. The Qur'an says:
Slay not your children fearing poverty. We shall provide
for them and you. Lo! the slaying of them is a great sin." Those
who kill their children out of their foolishness are the greatest
Thus, abortions, child-abuse and infanticide are all considered
as heinous sins in lslwn. Islain by its very nature is against
cruelty and barbarity. Any use of contraception-loop, shield,
plastic or anything to cause abortion is forbidden. Even if abortion
is done within seven days of conception, it is unlawful, since
the fertilized ovum is going to be a human being. However, only
on one condition is abortion allowed-to save the life of the mother."
It is also important to point out here that Islam is not against
technology but the misuse of technology. For instance, if technological
devices help mothers to lessen complications during prenatal period
and childbirth, Islam has no objection. But, if the technological
devices are used to help unmarried women or teenage girls to have
babies if they wish to, Islam strongly objects to it. Similarly,
Islam is against the production and use of contraceptive devices
to help umnarried women or teenage girls engage in sexual relationships
without becoming pregnant. Islain condemns the development of
high-tech reproductive aids to produce 'artificial' mothers, 'artificial'
fathers and 'artificial' children and also of technological devices
by which lesbians and homosexuals can engage in perverted sexuality
and also be able to get children. In fact Islain is totally against
all deviant forms of sexuality. The Qur'an says:
Would you really approach men in your lusts rather than women?
Nay, ye are a people (grossly) ignorant. 14
Islam, no doubt encourages man to beget children, but through
rightful means, not through any unlawful act. The Qur'.qn points
out how Prophet Zakariyyd (peace be upon him) prayed to Allah
for the pious offspring even at a very old age:
Lord! Bestow upon me by Thy bounty goodly offspringLo!
Thou art the Hearer of prayer. 15
As far as the invitro fertilization (" and test tube babies
are concerned, Muslim scholars consider them lawful only if the
ovum and the spenn come from a married couple and the embryo is
transferred into the uterus of the wife herself. The use of the
invitro fertilization by a woman or man who are not married to
each other is not permitted in Islam.
Islamic stance on artificial insemination is also quite clear.
It forbids the use of the sperin of anyone other than that of
the husband for artificial insemination. Such an act is tantamount
to adultery, from the Isladc perspective, since it falls outside
the marital union of a man and a woman. 37
Obligations of Children Towards their Parents
There is a reciprocity of rights and duties in islani. While
parents are enjoined to be mindful of their children for their
overall development, children are also exhorted to be obedient
and kind to their parents. Both parents and children have respective
duties towards each other along with their rights. There are several
Qur'Snic verses and Prophetic traditions which throw light on
the etiquette of children towards their parents. The Qur'an says:
Thy Lord bath decreed that ye worship none save Him and
(that ye show) kindness to parents.38
Islam thus ordains children to be kind and grateful to their
parents. Good conduct towards parents is even regarded as a key
to paradise. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said:
r entry into Paradise or Hell depends on your good or You
bad conduct towards your parents. 39
Another tradition of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) also highlights
the necessity of fair treatment to parents by children:
Let that man be disgraced, and disgraced again, and let him
be disgraced even more. The people enquired: "O Prophet of God
(p.b.u.h.) who is that man?" The Prophet affirmed: "I refer to
the man who finds his parents in old age-both of them or one of
them-and yet did not earn entitlement to Paradise by rendering
good service to them.""
It seems also pertinent to point out here that although children
are exhorted to be obedient and kind to both parents, a greater
emphasis is given on better treatment and devotion to mother.
This is obviously because of her greater sacrifice and suffering
for children. The Qur'an says:
And We have enjoined on man kindness to his Parents: In
pain did his mother Bear hint, and in pain Did she give him birth.
The carrying of the child To his weaning is A period of thirty
This is also illustrated through various Prophetic traditions,
y 1 enjoin man about his mother. 1 enjoin man about his mother.
1 enjoin man about his mother. 1 enjoin mean about his father-42
therhood in Islain is not discarded as a burden, a stumbling
Thus, mo block for woman's development, a source of oppression
and suppression. It is looked upon with respect and honour and
is considered as a blessing from Allah. Motherly affection and
care are deemed indispensable for the proper upbringing of children
along with the father's affection and concern.
Motherhood is regarded as an essential institution for human
civilization. As discussed above, Islain attaches great importance
to the mutual love and concern for each other in the family. As
the father is asked to pray to
Allah to make his wife and children comfort for his eyes, children
are also exhorted to show glances of love and devotion to parents.
The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said:
"The pious offspring who casts a single look of affection
at his parents receives a reward from God equal to the reward
of an accepted ljajj." The people subn-iitted: "O Prophet of Allah
(peace be upon you), if someone casts a hundred such glances of
love and affection at his parents, what then?" The Prophet replied:
"Yes, indeed, even if one does so a hundred times a day, he win
get a hundredfold reward. God is far greater than you imagine
and is completely free from petty narrow mindedness. 44 Children
are also exhorted to pray for their parents:
0, our Lord! Grant forgiveness to me and my parents and
pardon all the faithful on the day of Reckoning.
The main points from the above discussion can be summarised
Sexuality, reproduction and parents~children relationship in
the family are afl perceived in Islani as natural and essential
aspects of nian's life and are not separated from the whole Tawhidic
framework of life and thought. Man always reminded of Allah's
guidance all through these relationships whether sexual or otherwise.
Sexual relationships and reproduction outside @age are considered
A loving, peaceful and harmonious relationship between husband
and wife is greatly emphasized. Man's doiffination and woman's
subservience to man are completely rejected. Man and woman complement
each other and not against each other. Islamic farflily system
is based on mutual on among family members. affectionate, cordial,
and deeper relationship between parents and is strongly upheld
in Islam. A stable family with caring parent and children is required
for a better society and a healthier civilization.
not, however, afford to be complacent and take comfort in the
Islamic of sexuality, reproduction, husband-wife relationship
and parentsrelationships which are based on the Qur'finic injunctions
and traditions unless we see these theories put into practice.
For e, it is generally found that the relationships between husband
and wife een parents and children are less than satisfactory even
in some societies.
n some families men tend to keep a despotic attitude towards
women ildren resulting in a big communication gap between the
male members females and children. Men expect from women only
the service of g, cleaning and taking care of children. Exchange
of thoughts and n any problem of the outside world, of the Muslim
Ummah, or of any fields is almost absent. Instead of a loving
and caring environment. a and tense environment prevails in the
house because men usually n distance from women and children as
a mark of their artificial ur'. This sort of 'honour' sometimes
even turns to be 'horror' for other members and distorts the relationships
among the members. Although it against Islamic injunctions as
described above, sometimes even a us halo is attached to it for
which reason women and children can express themselves and become
victims of 'horror'.
In some cases, women alone are expected to take over all the
nsibilities of children and men are completely exempt from it.
For better onal upbringing of children, both mother and father
require to play rtant roles. In those families where women are
hardly educated, it s all the more problematic for children to
get proper educational ack. Whereas in some cases, where both
parents are educated and ng, again children become the vied" since
they do not get proper tion from their parents. Men claim that
they are too busy and women men for non-co~operation in house
chores and claim that they are overened with double workload and
tend to neglect children. Children feel are alienated from both
Due to a lack of mutual understanding and confidence, the relationships
een husband and wife grow tense and soinefimes give rise to divorce.
dren of divorced parents turn out to be aggressive and anti-social.
Hence, in the contemporary age of sexual and familial crises,
it seems erative for the Islamic Ummah to strengthen the institution
of family and the human civilization from complete destruction,
Notes & References
1. For a comprehensive and convincing study on Islam as the
complete way of life, see various books of Syed Abul Mawdudi such
as Islamic Way of Life, Lahore, Islamic Publications, 1992; see
also Let us be Muslims, Kuala Lumpur, The Islaniic Foundation,
A. S. Noordeen, 1991. For a Contemporary perspective on Islam,
see Muhammad Ahmedullah Siddiqi (ed.), Islam: A Contemporary Perspective,
Chicago, NAAMPS Publication, 1994.
2. See Ismail Raji al-Faruqi, Tawhid.. Its Implic£uions for Thought
and Life, Herndon, HIT, 1982; Muhammad Nejatullah S:lddiqui Tawbid..
1We Concept and the Process, in Khurshid Ahined and Zafar Ishaq
Ansari (Ed), Islamic Perspectives: Studies in Honour of Sayed
Abul Ala Mawdudi, Leicester, Islamic Foundation, 1979, pp. 17-33.
3. A]-Qur'an 2:30; For a concrete understanding of the universal
missionary role of a Muslim, see Sayed Abut Ala Mawdudi, Witness
unto Mankind, Leicester, Islamic Foundation, 1995.
4. AI-Qur'an 30:21.
5. Al-Qur'an 13:38.
6. AI-Qur'an 4:21.
7. Al-Qur'an 17:323; see also Mohammed Abdur Rauf, Islamic View
of Wonun and the Family, Chicago, Kazi Publications, 1996.
8. $abih Muslim, chapter, The Book of Marriage, ljadith no. 3213,
p. 703 quoted by Khurshid Ahmed, Family Life in Islam, Leicester,
Islamic Foundation, 1974, footnote 33, p. 20.
9. Mishkat, quoted by Khursffid Ahined in Family Life in Islam,
Leicester, Islamic Foundation, 1974, footnote 53, p. 30.
10. AI-Qur'5n 4:34.
11. AI-Qur'5n 4: 1.
12. @a4ib Muslim, An-Nasa'i and Ahmad quoted by Muhammad Naasir
Ad-Deen Albaaniy, in The Etiquettes ofmarriage and Weddings, Los
Angeles, a]-Madinah School, 1986, p. 17.
13. $abih Al-Bukhari, Aba Diiwad and others quoted by Mubarnmad
Naasir Ad-Decn Albaaniy, in The Etiquettes ofmarriage and Weddings,
Los Angeles, al-Madinah School, 1986, p. 5.
14. See for etiquette of married life in Islam, Muhaminad Yousuf
Islahi, Etiquettes of Life in Islarn, Lahore, Islamic Publications
Ltd., 1979, pp. 206-219; see also Muhammad Naasir Ad-Deen Albaaniy,
The Etiquettes ofmarriage and Weddings, Los Angeles, al-Madinah
School, 1986, pp. 9-12.
15. See for etiquette of mattied life in Islam, Muhammad Yousuf
Islahi, Etiquettes oflife in Islam, Lahore, Islamic Publications
Ltd., 1979, pp. 206-219; see also Muhammad Naasir Ad Deen Albaaniy,
Ale Etiquette ofmarriage and Weddings, Los Angeles, a] Madinah
School, 1986, pp. 9-12.
16. See for the domestic life of Prophet Muhanimad as a husband,
Muhammad Abdul Rauf, The Islamic Family: A General View, Kuala
Lumpur, Dewan Babasa dan Pustaka, 1994, pp. 10-38; see also Muhammad
Nassir Ad Deen Albaaniy, The Etiquettes ofmarriage and Weddings,
Los Angeles, al-Madinah School, 1986, p. 6.
17. AI-Qur'an 4: 1.
18. See Interview of Dr. llham al-Talib by Dr. Zeenath Kausar,
Reproduction, Technology and Islam, audio cassette and unpublished
paper, International lslwnic University, Malaysia, Library, 1995;
see also Chiam Heng Keng, Children: Our Heritage, Kuala Lumpur,
University of Malaya, 1992.
19. AI-Qur'an 44:6.
20. Mishkat al-Ma@abib quoted by Khurshid Ahmed in Family Life
in Islam, Leicester, Islaniic Foundation, 1974, p. 22.
21. AI-Qur'an 14:40-41.
22. AI-Qur'an 27:74.
23. AI-Qur'an 12:40.
24. Muhammad Yusuf Islahi, Etiquettes oflife in Islam, Lahore,
Islainic Foundation Ltd., 1967, p.
Muha.mmad Yusuf Islahi, Etiquettes of Life in Islam, Lahore, Islamic
Foundation Ltd., 1967, p. 227. A]-Qur'an 25:2. For a comprehensive
discussion on the rights of children and obligations of parents,
see Hainmudah 'Abd al-'Ati, The Family Structure in Islam, Indianapolis,
American Trust Publications, 1977, pp. 182-283; see also Muhammad
Yusuf Islahi, Etiquettes of Life in Islam, Lahore, Islamic Foundation
Ltd., 1967, p. 230. Tirmizi, quoted by Syed JaWuddin Ansar Umari,
in Woman and Islam, (English tr. Zeenath Kausar), Aligarh, 1990,
p. 30. A]-Qur'an 2:187, Muslim quoted by Muharnmad Yusuf Islahi,
Etiquettes of Life in Islam, Lahore, Islamic Foundation Ltd, 1967,
p. 231. AI-Qur'an 17:31; see for a detailed discussion on birth
control and abortion, Muhammad Abdul Rauf, The Islamic Family:
A General View, Kuala Lumpur, Dewali Bahasa dan Flustaka, 1994,
pp. 64-77. AI-Qur'an 6:140; see for pro and against arguments
on birth control, M. Mazheruddin Siddiqui, Women in Islam, Delhi,
Adam Publishers and Distributors, 1993, pp. 126-140. See Interview
of Dr. Ilham al-Talib by Dr. Zeenath Kausar on Reproduction, Technology
and lam, audio cassette and unpublished paper, IIUM, Library,
1995. AI-Qur'an 27:55. A]-Qur'an 3:38. n the problems related
to Sperm Bank and other related issues in the West, see Wahiduddin
an, Woman Between Islam and Western Society, New Delhi, The Islamic
Centre, 1997, pp. 91-106; see also Interview on Reproduction,
Technology and Islam of'Dr. llham a]-Talib by Dr. ath Kausar,
IIUM Library, Malaysia, 1995. n the problems of artificial insemination
in the West, see Wahiduddin Khan, Woman Between and Western Society,
New Delhi, The Islamic Centre, 1997, pp. 106-122; see also nterview
on Reproduction, Technology and Islam of Dr. llham al-Talib by
Dr. Zeenath Kausar, IUM Library, Malaysia, 1995. -Qur'an 17:23.
Maja, quoted by quoted by Muhwnmad Yusuf Islahi, Etiquettes of
Life in Islam, Lahore, slamic Foundation Ltd, 1967, p. 191. bi@
Muslim, quoted by Muharnmad Yusuf Islahi, Etiquettes of Life in
Islam, Lahore, Islamic undation Lid, 1967, p. 194. -Qur'an 46:15.
a, Sunan, The Book of Al-'Adah, chapter on "Obedience to Parents",
Hakim, Mustadrak, ol. 4, p. 150, quoted by Jalaluddin Ansar Umari,
in Woman and Islam (English tr. Zeenath ausar), Aligarh, 1990,
p. 21. a comprehensive discussion on woman as 'mother', 'daughter'
and 'wife', see JaWuddin sar Umari, Woman and Islam (English tr.
Zeenath Kausar), Aligarh, 1990, pp. 19-31. For a understanding
of the status of woman in Islam and the problems of Muslim society,
sm amal Badawi, The Status of Woman in Islam, Indianapolis, American
Trust Publications, 1983; also Lamya AI-Faruqi, Woman, Muslim
Society and Islam, Iiidianapolis, American Trust blications, 1987.
uslim, quoted by Muhammad Yusuf Islahi, Etiquettes of Life in
Islam, Islamic Foundations td, Lahore, 1967, p. 196; see also
Hainmudah 'Abd at 'Ati, The Family Structure in Islam, ndianapolis,
American Trust Publications, 1977, pp. 203-107. I-Qur'an 14:41.
Muslim Education Ouarterly
Vol. 16, No. 3, 1999
Islamic Academy, Cambridge, U.K.