HAKIM `AYN AL-MULK SHIRAZI (d. 1595 A.D.)
The Hakim was an Iranian physician who was married to Faydi's
sister. From mother's side, his lineage reached the famous Hakim
He was a disntinguished physician, surgeon and ophthalmologist."1"
He was also a good poet. He was a good-natured, witty and courageous
person. He was a man of both peace and war.
Hakim Shirazi began his career in the court of Emperor Akbar
and accompanied the Emperor on various expeditions. Akbar was
convinced about his medical expertise. When the Emperor was accidentally
injured by an arrow shot by Qatlaq Khan, he was operated upon
and treated by Hakim `Ayn al-Mulk and the wound healed in a week."2"
He also showed his valour in battles and exhibited statesmanship
in the various errands entrusted to him. In 1565 (9th year of
Akbar's accession to the throne) he delivered a Farman from Emperor
Akbar to Chingez Khan who was an influential man in Ahmedabad.
In 1573 he went to ltimad Khan Gujrati and delivered to him the
message of condolences from the Emperor. In 1575, he accompanied
the Emperor on his visit to the eastern provinces of the empire.
Thereafter, he was sent to Deccan to guide Adil Khan of Bijapur.
On his return, he was appointed as the commander of the Army of
Sanbhal in 1578 (the 22nd year of Akbar's accession to the throne).
Four years later, Ayn al-Mulk Shiraz! was sent to Sanbhal to suppress
the rebellion of Nayabat Khan which he did successfully. The same
year, he was appointed to the high office of Sadarat (governership)
of Bengal. In 1587, he was made District Officer in the province
Hakim Ayn al-Mulk Shirazi died at Hadhia in 1003 A.H./ 1595 A.D.
HAKIM NAJIB AL-DIN HUMAM (d. 1596)
He was the younger brother of Hakim Abul Fath Gilani, as mentioned
before. In the beginning, he was known by his real name Humayun
or Humayun Quli but later on, he changed his name to Humam as
a mark of respect to Emperor Akbar whose father's name was also
Hakim Humam was held in high esteem by Emperor Akbar who in one
of his letters, called him "the source of learning and wisdom"
and "a man of extraordinary personality among his [Akbar's]
friends"3". His position and
status can also be judged by the fact that in 1588 he was sent
as the envoy of Emperor Akbar on return embassy with valuable
presents to the court of °Abdullah Khun Uzbek, ruler of Turan.
Further, Hakim Humam, in his letter of credentials, was introduced
as "a truthful and sincere confidant of amiable nature and
of good disposition who has never been kept away from us since
our coronation and who has the permission to talk to us without
any intermediary"4".a In fact,
Hakim Humam was very dear to Akbar. When he had gone on an expedition,
the Emperor used to say that "his food has lost its savour
ever since Hakim Humam had gone away". Likewise, once addressing
Hakim Abul Fath, the Emperor said: "Do not think that Humam
is your brother and that is why you are to be more perturbed than
ourself. One cannot find a second Humam.""5"
Hakim Humam was also held in high esteem by Prince Salim (later
known as Emperor Jahangir). Once Jahangir got seriously ill due
to his addiction to alcohol and the long treatment by the three
famous court physicians Hakim Ruhullah, Hakim Rukna and Hakim
Sadra did not bear any fruits. So Hakim Humam was called to attend
on the Emperor. According to Jahangir: "I called Hakim Humam,
the brother of Hakim Abul Fath who was the special adviser and
confidant of my respected father and told him my condition. He
gave me his advice without any fear and hesitation which was the
outcome of his utmost sincerity and affection to me and began
the treatment. On his advice, I began mixing Philonium Romanian
in my drinks and gradually increased its quantity, reducing the
quantity of wine to the same degree and thus I was cured of my
alcoholic addiction by his treatment."6"
Hakim Humam died of tuberculosis after an illness
of two months. He was buried by the side of the grave of his brother,
Hakim Abul Fath at Hassan Abdal."7"
None of the works of Hakim Humam is known to be extant to-date.
HAKIM NUR AL-DIN QARARI (d. 1596)
He was the youngest brother of Hakim Abul Fath Gilani. He came
to India with his brothers in 982 A.H./1574 A.D. and entered the
court of Emperor Akbar using the influence and recommendation
of his brother. He was not only an expert physician but also an
exquisite poet. He used to compose excellent verses in Persian"8"
under the nom de plume of Qarari. Some of his sayings have become
proverbial,"9" e.g. "expression
of motivation before other physicians is an expression of greed",
"why should I blame or accuse death while I am struck by
the arrow of your modesty which shall kill me even if I die a
hundred year hence".
It has been reported that Qarari led a simple and care-free life
without worrying about this world and the world after death."10"
He had gone to Bengal by the orders of Emperor Akbar, where he
died on 6th Rabital-Awwal 1004 A.H./1596 A.D.
Hakim Lutfullah was the younger brother of Hakim Abul Fath Gilani.
He left his native place Gilan in Iran, after his three brothers
had already arrived in India where he joined them. He entered
the court of Emperor Akbar on the recommendation of his brother
Hakim Lutfullah was an expert physician with a very good knowledge
of his subject."11"
HAKIM 'ALI GILANI (d. 1610)
He was the nephew (sister's son) of Hakim al-Mulk Shams alDin
Gilani and a close relation of Amir Fathullah Shirazi. He was
born and brought up in Gilan (Iran). He was well-versed in all
the arts and sciences of his time and had an in-depth knowledge
of medicine and mathematics."12"
He had learnt medicine from Fathullah Shirazi and religious sciences
from Shaykh 'Abdul Nab!."13"
Hakim Ali Gilani came to India in pecuniary circumstances. When
he joined the court of Akbar,"14"
he secured great honour and respect from nobles and courtiers.
He rose to the rank of Haft Sad (Officer having 700 horsemen under
his command). He also held the office of Sadarat of the province
of Bihar."15" During the reign
of Jahdngir, he held the rank of Do-Hazari (2000 horsemen under
his command). He was given the title of Galen of his time."16"
In 1580, he was sent as an ambassador to the court of Ali Adil
Shah of Bijapur where he was received with great pomp and honour."17"
The Hakim was undoubtedly a skillful medical practitioner. He
was the personal physician of the royal family. Emperor Akbar
was convinced of his intelligence, practical knowledge, and particularly
of his ability to diagnose. He had successfully treated patients
who had lost hope of their life. Jahdngir called him "an
incomparable physician who had full knowledge of Arabian sciences."18"
For instance, when Emperor Akbar got sick in his old age, he
called Hakim Ali Gilani for treatment. Earlier in 1004 A.H. (1596
A.D.), when Akbar's poet laureate, Faydi was down with asthma,
dropsy and hematenesis and his condition deteriorated at mid-night,
the Emperor chose him from many other famous court physicians
to attend on Faydi.
Hakim All Gilani was also a mathematician of a high calibre.
In 1594, he built a remarkable tank (20' x 20' x 9') in Lahore
Hakim All Gilani is the author of the famous commentary on Ibn
Sind's Qanun, written in Arabic in 4 volumes: Shark-i Gilani.
This commentary is considered to be one of the most authentic
sources of Unani medical literature. Jahangir has also mentioned
this work in his Tuzk. According to '-Abdul Qadir Badayuni, it
was this book which led Hakim Lutfullah Gilani to write his own
commentary on Al-Qanun of Ibn Sind."20"
Hakim All Gilani has many new prescriptions to his credit. The
most famous one is the use of Juniper (Cedrus Deodara or Himalayan
Cedar) oil for pain in muscles and joints as well as treatment
of nerves with singular results. This oil is being used by Unani
physicians even to-day.
Hakim Ali Gilani died on 5th of Muharram, 1018 A.H./1610 A.D.
Hakim Ali Gilani had only one son, named Hakim Abdul Wahab, but
many pupils. Mir Hashim and Hakim Sadra were his famous students.
The latter Hakim was bestowed with the title of Masih al-Zaman.
to be continued]
1) Ma'athir al-Umara (Urdu Translation), by Shah Nawaz
Khan, Lahore, 1968, Vol. I, p.559.
2) Tarikh-i Farishtah, by Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah Farishtah
(Nawal Kishore Press), Kanpur, 1874., p.388.
3) Ma'athir al-Umara (Urdu Translation), by Shah Nawaz
Khan, Lahore, 1968, Vol. I, p.565.
4) Ibid, Vol. I, pp. 561-562
5) Ibid, Vol. I, pp. 562
6) Tuzuk-i Jahangiri, by Nuruddin Muhammad
Shah Jahangir (Matba Urdu), Aligarh, 1864. Another edition by
Syed Ahmad Khan, Ghazipur, 1863. p. 151.
7) Muntakhab al-Tawarikh, by Mulla Abdul Qadir Badayuni
(College Press), Calcutta, 1865, Vol. III p.168
8) Ma'athir al-Umara (Urdu Translation), by Shah Nawaz
Khan, Lahore, 1968, Vol. I, p.558.
10) Muntakhab al-Tawarikh, by Mulla Abdul Qadir
BAdayuni (College Press), Calcutta, 1865, Vol. I p, 561
11) Ibid, Vol III, p.169.
12) Ma'athir al-Umara (Urdu Translation), by Shah Nawaz
Khan, Lahore, 1968, Vol. I, p.566.
13) Muntakhab al-Tawarikh, by Mulla Abdul Qadir
BAdayuni (College Press), Calcutta, 1865, Vol. III p.144
14) It is said that he first came to Deccan and thence
called to Agra by Akbar on the recommendation of Faydi. (Atibba-i
Ahd-i Mughaliya, by Sayyid Ali Kauthar Chandpuri (Hamdard Academy),
Karachi, 1955), p. 134.
15) Akbar Nama , by Abul FAdi (Mazhar al-Aja'ib), Calcutta,
1877. Vol. III, p. 357
16) Ma'athir al-Umara (Urdu Translation), by Shah Nawaz
Khan, Lahore, 1968, Vol. I, p.569
17) Akbar Nama , by Abul FAdi (Mazhar al-Aja'ib), Calcutta,
1877. Vol. III, p. 261
18) Tuzuk-i Jahangiri, by Nuruddin Muhammad
Shah Jahangir (Matba Urdu), Aligarh, 1864. Another edition by
Syed Ahmad Khan, Ghazipur, 1863. quoted in (Atibba-i Ahd-i Mughaliya,
by Sayyid Ali Kauthar Chandpuri (Hamdard Academy), Karachi, 1955)
19) It has been reported that in that tank, he had built
an under-water room with a minaret and with a bridge on each side.
However, there was only one underwater entrance to this room and
the door of which was kept open. The strange thing about this
room was that despite the open door, not a drop of water entered
the room. Akbar had himself dived into the tank and examined the
room ( Akbar Nama , by Abul Fadi (Mazhar al-Aja'ib), Calcutta,
1877., Vol. 111, p. 688). Emperor Jahangir has also mentioned
in his Memoirs a similar tank with an under-water room built in
Agra by Hakim 'Ali Gilani (Tuzuk-i Jahangiri, by
Nuruddin Muhammad Shah Jahangir (Matba Urdu), Aligarh, 1864. Another
edition by Syed Ahmad Khan, Ghazipur, 1863., p. 74).
20) Muntakhab al-Tawarikh, by Mulla Abdul Qadir BAdayuni
(College Press), Calcutta, 1865, Vol. III, p. 168