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Biographical Data :

Name :Faisal Bin Hussain Al Hashmi
Period :1887 - 1933
Biographical detail : A King of Iraq.

Son of Husain Ibn Ali Shariff of Makkah, a descendent of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). In the Muslim world, the Arabs and the non-Arabs have two different views about him. The Arabs considered him their national hero because he tried to free them from foreign political domination. To the rest of the Muslims, he brought an end to the Ottoman Empire by being an ally of the Western powers.

His father Shariff Hussain hated the Turks and when he became the Shariff of Makkah he started to engineer Arab uprisings against the Turks. The Ottoman sultan Abdul Hamid invited him to Constantinople along with his family and kept them as his guests for eighteen years.

It was only in 1908, when the young Turks brought a revolution in the country and deposed Sultan Abdul Hamid, that he was able to come back to Makkah. Faisal and his father Shariff Hussain had helped the `Young Turks' to bring down the government of Sultan Abdul Hamid.

In the First World War the Turks had joined the Germans against the English. In 1914 the Command-in-chief of the British Army, Lord Kitchener, invited the Arabs to join the British. Shariff Hussain accepted the proposal on the condition that the Arabs should be given independence after the war. MacMohan accepted this and 50,000 was placed to help Arabs against the Turks. In 1916 Shariff Hussain declared war against the Turks. Faisal was able to take control of some port towns, which were of great importance for getting the Arms supply from the British. The famous Thomas Edward Lawrence was working for the British army in Egypt. When Shariff Hussain's family captured Jeddah, Lawrence got in touch with Faisal and started guiding and assisting him in his war against the Turks.

In 1918 Damascus was conquered by the Combined Arab British forces, Faisal was declared the king of Syria. According to the agreement between Mac Mohan and Shariif Hussain, Iraq, Syria, Najda and Hejaz should have been given independence as Arab states but according to a secret agreement between England and France, Syria and Palestine were to be divided between them and the Jews who had helped them financially and were promised an independent Israel carved out of Palestine. France was to get Syria and the British to get Iraq, Though Faisal was made king of Syria, the French did not like the arrangement and gave him an ultimatum to leave Syria by 2nd August 1920.

The British, on the recommendation of Lawrence, made Faisal monarch of Iraq in 1921 where he ruled till his death in 1933.
 (Compiler : M. Nauman Khan / Ghulam Mohiuddin)


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