|Biographical detail : || A descendent of al Hasan Kalbi during whose reign the Muslim Sicily reached its height.
The old feuds between the north Arabians and the south Yemenites (including the Kalbis) brought the downfall of Muslim rule in Sicily. Palermo was lost to count Roger in 1017 and in 1090 Malta was taken by Roger. The Islamic influence remained for over a century later - Sicily became a Christian Kingdom dominated by Muslim officials. King Roger II even had his coins minted with Arabic numerals and dressed like a Muslim. RogerII's grandson Frederick (1215-55) who ruled both Sicily and Germany patronised Muslim scholars.
This marked the beginning of the Italian renaissance. Frederick's greatest contribution towards this was the founding of the university of Naples (1224), where he collected a large number of Arabic manuscripts. The works of Ibn Rushd and other Muslim scholars were translated and used in its curriculum and copies of the translations were sent to the universities of Paris and Bologna.