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Biographical Data :

Name :Abu Hanifa
Period :700 - 770
Biographical detail : He was a pioneer of fiqh and the founder of the Hanafi School of jurisprudence.

Abu Hanifa is regarded as the great oracle of jurisprudence, and his doctrines along with those of his disciples, Imam Yusuf and Imam Muhammad are generally followed throughout Turkey, the Indian sub-continent and other countries like Turan and Afghanistan. In addition to Qur’an and Hadis, he insisted on the right of juridical speculation, Qiyas and ijma.

Abu Hanifa converted to Islam and pioneered the new discipline of jurisprudence (fiqh), which would have an immense impact on Islamic piety, and become the main discipline of higher education in the Muslim world. How could society be run according to Islamic principles? The jurists wanted to establish precise legal norms that would make the Quranic command to build a just society that surrendered wholly and in every detail to Allah’s will a real possibility rather than a pious dream. Qura’an contains very little legislation, and what laws there were had been designed for a much simpler society.

Abu Hanifa became the greatest legal expert of the Umayyad period, and founded a school of jurisprudence, which Muslims still follow today. He wrote little himself, but his disciples preserved his teachings for posterity, while later jurists, who developed slightly different theories, founded new madhhabs.

Abu Hanifa principal works were the Masnad a treatise called Filkalam and Muallim ul Islam. At the time of his birth some of the `Companion's of the Prophet, peace be upon him, were still alive that lent credence to his authority.

There are four recognised law schools, each regarded with Muslim egalitarianism as equally valid – the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi and Hanbali schools, the later preserving the ideals of Ibn Hanbal and the Hadith People. In practice, these four madhhabs did not differ markedly from one another. Each Muslim could choose the one he or she would follow, though most tended towards the one that was prevalent locally.

Abu Hanifa, Imam Azam, was born Abu Hanifa Numan IbnSabit at Kufa and was a merchant by trade. He was buried in Baghdad where Malik Shah Seljuqi built his magnificent tomb in 1067.
 (Compiler : M. Nauman Khan / Ghulam Mohiuddin)


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