Sovereignty of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan is shared by Great Britain
and Egypt (Condominium Agreement of 1899) Governor General of
the Sudan is appointed by the Egyptian King on "the recommendation
of His Britannic Majesty's Govt" and is vested with supreme military
and civil command and full legislative powers.
"Egypt has not , however, entirely discarded her argument that
the Sudan is an integral part of Egypt, but British control is
secured by the appointment of a British Governor General, who
naturally turns for advice in the first place to His Britannic
"The tribal sheikhs (of North Sudan) are by interest and inclination
loyal to the govt and the tribes as a whole being guided principally
by self interest are also perfectly loyal.. Almost the only sect
with a natural bent for fanaticism is a portion of West Africans
resident in the Sudan, whose belief in the Mahdi and adherence
to Sayed Sir Abdul Rahman, the former Mahdi's son, make them a
potential danger spot which, without being overrated, has to be
"..[The numerous different tribes] are a happy hunting ground
of the anthropologist, their tribal structure ids less developed
than that of the Northern population and they are less subject
to the authority of the their chiefs, whom it is the policy of
the government to support and to use to as channels for administering
them.. Islam has acquired certain strongholds in the south, but
its influence is not widespread and it is the policy of the government
to oppose rather than encourage Northern infiltration."
The "New" Nationalism in the Sudan
Developed post 1924 when the old nationalist movement calling
for union with Egypt was "betrayed" by Egypt when Egypt did not
support the Sudanese against the punitive action taken by the
Principles of the new nationalism
"a) Preservation of Sudanese identity i.e. repudiation of the
desire for fusion with Egypt.
b) Recognition that immediate independence is neither possible
c) Acceptance of British Guardianship (in theory the guardianship
if the Condominium govt) as being (until the Sudan is in a position
to govern itself) preferable to any possible alternative.
d) The formulation and pursuance of legitimate aspirations by
peaceful and legal means.
Headed by El Sayed Sir Abd el-Rehman el-Mehdi KBE,CVO, son of
the man who ruled Sudan previously. Not much support in the north
and east. His main followers are: " Firstly fanatical persons
who believe in him as the Moslem liberator of the Sudan from Christian
domination (the Backward Mahdists of the Western tribes)...
secondly persons of moderate and sophisticated views, who regard
him as head of a religous sect, to be venerated accordingly...thirdly
persons interested in the political future of Sudan, who regard
him as the most suitable man to lead a nationalist movement..
He proposes , however, to achieve his ends [recognition and power
according to the report] not by violent but by constitutional