Abd Al Malik
Fifth Ummaiyad Caliph who restored Ummaiyad power after a period of civil war.
Abd al-Malik (his full name Abdul Malik Bin Marwan)upheld the solidarity of the ummah against the local Arab chieftains, brought rebels to heel, and pursued a determined policy of centralisation.
It was during the reign of Abd al-Malik that gold and silver coins, decorated with Quranic phrases, were first introduced in Muslim countries. The credit of establishing Post Office for the first time also went to him. Under his rule and that of his son Al-Walid the Muslim empire reached its greater expansion.
In 691, in Jerusalem, the Dome of the Rock, the first major Islamic monument, which proudly asserted the supremacy of Islam in the holy city, was completed under his auspices - "The Mosque of Umar." The Dome, inside of which was decorated with Quranic verses, also laid the foundations of the unique architectural and artistic style of Islam. 'The dome itself, which would become so characteristic of Muslim architecture, is a towing symbol of the spiritual ascent to heaven to which all believers aspire, but it also reflects the perfect balance of tawhid. Its exterior, which reaches towards the infinity of the sky, is a perfect replica of its internal dimension. It illustrates the way in which the human and the divine, the inner and the outer worlds complement one another as two halves of a single whole. Muslims were becoming more confident and were beginning to express their own unique spiritual vision.'
Abd al-Malik adopted Arabic as the language of administration in which the peoples could communicate throughout his vast empire and as a result Greek, Aramaic and Coptic ceased to be spoken languages, only Persian survived.
Compiled by:M. Nauman Khan / Ghulam Mohiuddin