An ingenious engineer
The crank-shaft a device which translate rotary into linear motion and is central to much of the machinery in the modern world, not least the internal combustion engine, was invented by al-Jazari who raised water for irrigation.
His 'Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices' (1206) shows he also invented or refined the use of valves and pistons, devised some of the first mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, and was the father of robotics.
Among al-Jazari fifty other inventions was the combination lock.
Compiled by:M. Nauman Khan