Ottoman Sultan who introduced the modernising Tanzimat reforms.
Sultan Mahmud II had inaugurated the Tanzimat (Regulations) in 1826, which abolished the Janissaries, modernised the army, and introduced some of the new technology. He introduced postal services in 1834, and made primary education compulsory. The European dress was also introduced in his regime.
In his early years of reign (1808 - 1939) Mahmud had to cede the province of Bessarabia to Russia (1812). In 1815 Serbia became almost autonomous. In 1830, he had to give freedom to Greece after the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29.
When Mahmud refused to give Muhammad Ali the governorship of Syria, as promised for his services to him against the Greeks, Muhammad Ali invaded Syria and, in 1839, Mahmud was defeated. The series of military defeats had convinced Mahmud of the need to bring reform in his army. Mahmud therefore established a new army under the training of the Germans.
Compiled by:M. Nauman Khan / Ghulam Mohiuddin